Most venomous snakes in the world
There are around 600 venomous snakes out of the 3400 snake species in the world. This is an overview of the snakes that pose a significant health risk to humans and other animals, through snake bites or other physical trauma.
The varieties of snake that most often cause serious snakebites to depend on the region of the world. While several species of snakes may cause more bodily destruction than others, any of the venomous snakes are still very capable of causing human fatalities should a bite go untreated, regardless of their venom capabilities or behavioral tendencies.
The median lethal dose (LD50) of a venom is the dose required to kill half the members of a tested population after a specified test duration. A lower LD50 is indicative of increased toxicity.
Ever wondered what’s the most venomous snake in the world?
So, here we have compiled the list of the most venomous snakes in the world.
Let's see -
The inland taipan is the most venomous snake in the world. Based on the median lethal dose value in mice, its venom, drop for drop, is by far the most toxic of any snake. It has the most toxic venom of any reptile when tested on human heart cell culture. The inland taipan, also commonly known as the western taipan, the small-scaled snake, or the fierce snake. It is endemic to semi-arid regions of central eastern Australia. Aboriginal Australians living in those regions named the snake Dandarabilla. The inland taipan is a specialist mammal hunter so its venom is specially adapted to kill warm-blooded species. It is estimated that one bite possesses enough lethality to kill at least 100 fully grown men, and, depending on the nature of the bite, it has the potential to kill someone in as little as 30 to 45 minutes if left untreated. It is an extremely fast and agile snake that can strike instantly with extreme accuracy, often striking multiple times in the same attack, and it envenoms in almost every case.
Eastern brown snake
The eastern brown snake often referred to as the common brown snake, is an extremely venomous snake of the family Elapidae, native to eastern and central Australia and southern New Guinea. It considered the world's second-most venomous land snake after the Inland Taipan and based on its LD50 value in mice. It is responsible for about 60% of snake-bite deaths in Australia. The adult eastern brown snake is a slender snake up to 2 mt (7 ft) long with variable upper parts that can be various shades of brown, ranging from pale brown to almost black. Its underside is pale cream-yellow, often with orange or grey splotches. The eastern brown snake is found in most habitats except dense forests. It has become more common in farmland and on the outskirts of urban areas. The eastern brown snake is found along the east coast of Australia, from Malanda in far north Queensland, along with the coasts and inland ranges of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and to the Yorke Peninsula in South Australia.
Yellow-bellied sea snake
The yellow-bellied sea snake, yellow belly sea snake or pelagic sea snake, is a species of snake from the subfamily Hydrophiinae found in tropical oceanic waters around the world except for the Atlantic Ocean. It is the only member of the genus Pelamis, but recent molecular evidence suggests that it is closely related to the species of the genus Hydrophis. The yellow-bellied sea snake, as the name implies, has a distinctive bicolor pattern with a yellow underbelly and brown back, making it easily distinguishable from other sea snake species. These snakes are fully adapted to living their whole lives at sea: mating, eating and giving birth to live young. Adaptations to aquatic life include the reduced ventral scale size, laterally compressed body and paddle-tail for swimming. The yellow-bellied sea snake is one of the most widely distributed snakes in the world. The venom of this species is highly potent. Yellow-bellied sea snake venom contains several different neurotoxins and two other isotoxins.
The many-banded krait, also known as the Taiwanese krait or the Chinese krait, is a highly venomous species of elapid snake found in much of central and southern China and Southeast Asia. The many-banded krait mostly inhabits marshy areas throughout its geographical distribution, though it does occur in other habitat types. The many-banded krait is a medium to large sized species of snake, averaging 1 to 1.5 m (3.3 to 4.9 ft) in length. It is far more commonly found in humid lowland areas and most often observed in subtropical, marshy regions of its range. Its venom was lethal enough to kill within two steps.
Tiger snakes are a highly venomous snake species found in the southern regions of Australia, including its coastal islands, such as Tasmania. These snakes are highly variable in their color, often banded like those on a tiger, and forms in their regional occurrences. All populations are in the genus Notechis, and their diverse characters have been described in further subdivisions of this group. Sometimes they are described as distinct species and/or subspecies. The total length is typically about 1.2 meters The patterning is darker bands, strongly contrasting or indistinct, which are pale to very dark in color. Tolerant of low temperatures, the snake may be active on warmer nights. When threatened, they flatten their bodies and raise their heads above the ground in a classic prestrike stance. The species' distribution extends from the south of Western Australia through to South Australia, Tasmania, including Savage River National Park up through Victoria, and New South Wales. Its common habitat includes the coastal areas of Australia.
Black-banded sea krait
The black-banded sea krait, or Chinese sea snake, is a member of the Laticauda genus of sea snakes. It is found in most of the warm wāters of the western Pacific Ocean. This high snake frequents coral reef areas. It has a short head, thick trunk, and no easily discernible neck. The tail is simply extended skin, spread wide like a fin, and unsupported by any projection. Generally, the species is found in Fiji, southern Japan, and Singapore. Their venom is ten times stronger than that of a cobra, making them extremely dangerous. This snake does not bite humans unless it feels threatened.
The African Black mamba is a large and highly venomous snake species native to much of Sub-Saharan Africa. It is the second longest venomous snake species in the world and is the fastest moving land snake, capable of moving at 4.32 to 5.4 meters per second (16–20 km/h, 10–12 mph). A black mamba will often mimic a cobra by spreading a neck-flap, exposing its black mouth, raising its body off the ground, and hissing. It can rear up around one-third of its body from the ground, which can put it at about four feet high. The black mamba delivers multiple strikes, injecting large amounts of virulent toxic venom with each strike, often landing bites on the body or head, unlike other snakes. Their strikes are very quick and extremely accurate and effective. This species of snake often shows an incredible amount of tenacity, fearlessness, and aggression when cornered or threatened, during the breeding season, or when defending its territory. It is estimated that only 10 to 15 mg will kill a human adult; however, its bites deliver about 120 mg of venom on average, although they may deliver up to 400 mg of venom in a single bite.
The Indian cobra is a moderately venomous species but has a rapid-acting venom. In mice, the SC LD50 for this species is 0.80 mg/kg and the average venom yield per bite is between 169 and 250 mg. Estimated fatalities as a result of this species are approximately 15,000 per year, but they are responsible for an estimated 100,000-150,000 non-fatal bites per year.
Russell's viper produces one of the most excruciatingly painful bites of all venomous snakes. Internal bleeding is common. Bruising, blistering and necrosis may appear relatively quickly as well. The Russell's viper is irritable, short-tempered and a very aggressive snake by nature and when irritated, coils tightly, hisses, and strikes with lightning speed. This species is responsible for more human fatalities in India than any other snake species, causing an estimated 25,000 fatalities annually. For most humans, a lethal dose is approximately 40–70 mg. Reported venom yields for adult specimens range from 130–250 mg to 150–250 mg to 21–268 mg.
The common krait is often considered to be the most dangerous snake species in India. Its venom consists mostly of powerful neurotoxins which induce muscle paralysis. Due to the fact that krait venom contains many presynaptic neurotoxins, patients bitten will often not respond to antivenom because once paralysis has developed it is not reversible. This species causes an estimated 10,000 fatalities per year in India alone. Average venom yield per bite is 10 mg, 8 to 20 mg (dry weight), and 8 to 12 mg. The lethal adult human dose is 2.5 mg.
The King cobra is the longest venomous snake in the world, and it can inject very high volumes of venom in a single bite. The venom LD50 is 1.80 mg/kg. Between 350 and 500 mg (dry weight) of venom can be injected at once. The average venom quantity was 421 mg. The maximum venom yield is approximately 1000 mg. The king cobra has a fearsome reputation. When annoyed, it spreads a narrow hood and growls loudly, but some scientists claim that their aggressiveness is grossly exaggerated. If the snake were really habitually aggressive records of its bite would be frequent; as it is they are extremely rare.
Common death adder
The Common death adder is a highly venomous snake species with a 50-60% untreated mortality rate. It is also the fastest striking venomous snake in the world. A death adder can go from a strike position, to strike and envenoming their prey, and back to strike position again, in less than 0.15 seconds. The SC LD50 value is 0.4 mg/kg and the venom yield per bite can range anywhere from 70–236 mg. They are said to be reluctant to bite unless actually touched.
The Philippine cobra is one of the most venomous cobra species in the world based on murine LD50 studies. The average venom yield per bite is 90–100 mg. The venom of the Philippine cobra is a potent postsynaptic neurotoxin which affects respiratory function and can cause neurotoxicity and respiratory paralysis, as the neurotoxins interrupt the transmission of nerve signals by binding to the neuromuscular junctions near the muscles. These snakes are capable of accurately spitting their venom at a target up to 3 meters (9.8 ft) away. Bites from this species produce prominent neurotoxicity and are considered especially dangerous.
The Jararaca is the best-known venomous snake in the wealthy and heavily populated areas of southeastern Brazil, where it was responsible for fifty-two percent (3,446 cases) of snakebites between 1902 and 1945.
Eastern Green Mamba
The eastern green mamba is highly venomous; a single bite can contain enough venom to kill several people. The venom acts on the nerves, heart, and muscles, and spreads quickly through tissue. Bites rapidly progress to life-threatening symptoms characteristic of mamba bites, which include swelling of the bite area, dizziness, nausea, difficulty breathing and swallowing, irregular heartbeat, convulsions, and eventual respiratory paralysis.
The eyelash viper waits patiently for unsuspecting prey to wander by. Sometimes it is known to select a specific ambush site and return to it every year in time for the spring migration of birds. Studies have indicated that these snakes learn to improve their strike accuracy over time, while there are rumors among villagers in parts of South America that this snake will wink, flashing its eyelashes at its victim, following a venomous strike.
The Malayan or Blue Krait is, by far, the most deadly of this species. Found throughout South East Asia and Indonesia, 50% of bites from the deadly Blue Krait are fatal, even with the administration of antivenom. Kraits hunt and kill other snakes, even cannibalizing other Kraits. They are a nocturnal breed and are more aggressive under the cover of darkness. The venom is a neurotoxin, 16 times more potent than that of a Cobra. It quickly induces muscle paralysis by preventing the ability of nerve endings to properly release the chemical that sends the message to the next nerve. Death usually occurs within 6-12 hours of a Krait bite. Even if patients make it to a hospital, permanent coma and even brain death from hypoxia may occur, given potentially long transport times to get medical care.
Belcher’s Sea Snake
The most venomous snake known in the world, a few milligrams is strong enough to kill 1000 people! Less than 1/4 of bites will contain venom, and they are relatively docile. Fisherman is usually the victims of these bites, as they encounter the species when they pull nets from the ocean. Found throughout waters off South East Asia and Northern Australia.